What is Router | Functions of Router


What is Router, Types of Router, How does Router Works, What is the Functions of Router, What are the Components of Router, What is Routing Table


Do you know what a router is and how it works? A router is an electronic device that connects a network of many computers together through a wired or wireless connection. It connects the computer network to the Internet. Nowadays Internet is being used everywhere, so everyone must have heard the name of Router. When you access the Internet except from the mobile network, then you access the Internet from a Wireless Networking Device.

What is Router

It is a Hardware Networking Device. It is used to connect network. When any data that travels from one network to another in the form of a packet, the router receives the packet data and analyzes whatever information is in the data packet and forwards it to the destination device. It is used to connect different networks wired or wirelessly. Nowadays it is used to access the Internet in homes. Which is called Wireless Router. It works on the Network Layer out of the 7 Layers of the OSI Model.

Types of Router

1. Wireless 

Nowadays every person is aware about it, it is used more in home, college, office. The Wireless Device creates an area of ​​Wireless Signal and all the Computers, Mobiles, Tablets, Phones in this area can use the Internet. In view of security, there is also a password system in it, that is why password and IP address are used in it. You must have noticed that whenever you use Wifi, you are asked for a password before connecting to Wifi. This is its security feature.


2. Broadband

It works in many ways. Mainly it is used to connect one computer to another computer and connect it to the Internet. If you want to connect your phone to the Internet through Voice over IP Technology, then you have to use Broadband  for VOIP Connection. This is a special modem in which Ethernet and Phone Jacks are used.


3. Core 

This device acts as the backbone of the LAN network. Different Distributed Routers are connected by this. For example, if there is a company that has many routers at different locations, then Core deviceis used to connect them all.

4. Internet Provider Boarder 

It is used to connect ISPs, such as Vodafone with Jio and Airtel with Reliance. It also does the work of maintaining the BGP Session.

5. Edge 

It is placed on the side of the Internet Service Provider. Configure External Protocols such as Boarder Gateway Protocol with BGP of other Internet Service Providers.

6. Subscriber Edge 

It comes under End User Organization. It is configured to broadcast the external BGP as the provider’s AS.

What are the Components of Router

1. Central Processing Unit

This is a brain that runs the special software OS. Some OS such as Juons run Juniper and IOS runs Cisco Router. This is such an operating system that manages the components of all routers.

2. RAM

When the router is on, the operating system is loaded into RAM. After this the router determines the route and informs other routers about this route. Many data like Routing Tables, Routing Matrix, ARP Tables are stored inside RAM.

3. Non-Volatile RAM

This is a Permanent Memory. In this, the backup and startup version of the operating system are stored. Whenever the router boots, the program is reloaded from this memory itself.


4. Flash Memory

Flash memory is a hard disk. In this Routing Algorithm, Routing Tables and Routing Protocol are stored.

5. Network Interfaces

There are many types of network interfaces in routers. There are many drivers in the operating system. With the help of these drivers, the routers get to know which network’s wire is connected in which port.

6. Console

Its job is to manage and configure the router. Trouble Shooting Command and Configuration are given from the console.

Functions of Router

1. Prevents LAN Broadcasting.
2. Helps in creating Loop Free Path.
3. Helps in Protocol Translation.
4. Delivers data from Sender to Receiver.
5. Finds a short route to reach the packet to the destination.
6. It works like Default Gateway.
7. Works to create a route in the middle of the network.
8. Connects two networks together.

How does Router Works

It works to send packets from one network to another. Its main job is to receive the packet and deliver the packet to the receiver. If you sent a Facebook message from your computer to someone you know who is not in your city. First of all the message is converted into a packet and reaches the nearest router. Now the router checks the Routing Table with the Routing Protocol. In the Routing Table, the details of the Address and Path Distance of all the nearby routers are kept.

After this, the packet is forwarded to the nearest router, in which the IP address of the receiver remains. When the packet reaches the next router, from there again the Shortest Path is checked and forwarded to the next router. In this way the packet reaches the receiver. Many networks can be connected using a this device and Routing Table can also be maintained.

What is Routing Table

This is made from many many rules. This is a type of table. It is used to decide in which direction the packet will be sent in the Internet Protocol Network. All the IP Enabled Devices like Switches and Routers all use the same Routing Table. The routing table contains all the information that is used to choose the shortest path to forward the packet to the destination. Source and destination information is given in every packet.

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