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What is Fisheries- Definition, Types, Importance

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Definition of Fisheries, What is Fisheries, Types of Fishery, Importance of Fisheries

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What is Fisheries

1. It is an important source of food, nutrition, employment and income in India. The sector provides livelihoods to about 16 million fishers and fish farmers at the primary level and almost twice the number along the value chain. Fish being an affordable and rich source of animal protein, is one of the healthiest options to mitigate hunger and malnutrition.
2. The share of fisheries sector in the total GDP increased from 0.40% in 1950-51 to 1.03% in 2017-18. It accounts for about 6.58% share of agricultural GDP.
3. In India, Fisheries is a state subject. While Inland Fisheries are fully managed by state governments, Marine Fisheries are a shared responsibility between the Central and Coastal State/UT Governments.

Constraints in the growth of the Sector

1. Major constraints impacting the growth of marine fisheries include limited scope for expansion due to overcapacities in territorial waters, weak regulation, inefficient
management and prevalence of traditional fishing practices. 
2. Inadequate infrastructure especially fishing harbors, landing centers, cold chain and distribution systems, poor processing and value addition, wastage, traceability and certification, non-availability of skilled manpower, etc. are some of the other factors constraining the growth of the capture fisheries.
3. In inland capture fisheries, seasonal nature of fishing operations, depleted stocks in natural waters, issues related with tenure and lease rights, use of obsolete technology for harvesting coupled with low capital infusion are some of the significant limiting factors. 
4. Specific problems negating the growth of culture it inadequate access to
institutional credit and high cost of credit, inadequate infrastructure for pre-production, production, post-harvest and processing facilities, low adoption of technologies and shortage of skilled manpower in aquaculture and extension services.

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what-is-fisheries-definition-types-importance

National Fisheries Policy 2020

Mission

The policy aims to develop an ecologically healthy, economically viable and socially
inclusive fisheries sector that contributes towards economic prosperity and well-being of fishers and fish farmers, and provides food and nutritional security to the country in a sustainable and responsible manner. (Land Reforms)

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Objectives

The major objectives of the policy include:

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1. A robust management and regulatory framework with necessary legal backing for
effective fisheries resource management through an Ecosystem Approach of Fisheries (EAF) management.
2. Modernize, rationalize (infuse science and technology) and diversify fishing practices in oceans and seas with sustainability of resources as the core philosophy.
3. Conserve and manage native fish genetic stocks and associated habitats and ecosystem.
4. Strengthen and modernize value chain including creation of fisheries infrastructure to increase shelf life, reduction of post-harvest losses and production of value added products.
5. Generate gainful employment and entrepreneurship opportunities along the value chain leading to higher income of fishers and fish farmers, improve their living standards and usher in economic prosperity.
6. Ensure food and nutritional security by increasing the per capita availability of safe, affordable and quality fish.

Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana

The scheme was launched in September 2020 by PM Narendra Modi with an aim to
enhance fish production to 220 lakh metric tons by 2024-25 from 137.58 lakh metric tons in 2018-19 at an average annual growth rate of about 9%.
The major objectives of the scheme include:

1. Enhancing fish production by an additional 70 lakh tonne till 2024-25,
2. Increasing fisheries export earnings to Rs.1,00,000 crore,
3. Doubling of incomes of fishers and fish
4. Reducing post-harvest losses from 20-25% to about 10%
5. Generation of additional 55 lakhs direct and indirect gainful employment opportunities in the fisheries sector and allied activities farmers.

Blue Revolution– Neel Kranti Mission

The government of India restructured the central plan scheme under an umbrella of Blue Revolution: Integrated Development and Management of Fisheries (Central Sector Scheme).

Vision

“Creating an enabling environment for integrated development of the full potential of fisheries of the country, along with substantially improvement in the income status of fishers and fish farmers keeping in view the sustainability, bio-security and environmental concerns.”

Mission

1. Formulation of a Neel Kranti Mission Plan (Blue Revolution Mission Plan) for tapping the full potential of the inland and marine culture fisheries of the country by developing it as a professional modern world class industry.
2. Ensure doubling of income of fishers and fish farmers of the country.
3. Ensure sustainability of, bio-security and address environmental concerns for enabling sustainability of the fishing industry.

Objectives

1. To fully tap the total fish potential of the country both in the inland and the marine sector and triple the production by 2020.
2. To transform the this sector as a modern industry with special focus on new
technologies and processes.
3. To double the income of the fishers and fish farmers with special focus on increasing productivity and better marketing postharvest infrastructure including e-commerce and other technologies and global best innovations.
4. To ensure inclusive participation of the fishers and fish farmers in the income
enhancement.
5. To triple the export earnings by 2020 with focus on benefits flow to the fishers and fish farmers including through institutional mechanisms in the cooperative, producer
companies and other structures.
6. To enhance food and nutritional security of the country.

Strategy – Central Sector Assistance Schemes

The Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries has accordingly restructured the scheme by merging all the ongoing schemes under an umbrella of Blue Revolution. The restructured scheme provides focused development and management of fisheries, covering inland fisheries, aquaculture, marine fisheries including deep sea fishing, mariculture and all activities undertaken by the National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB).

The restructured Plan Scheme on Blue Revolution: Integrated Development and Management of Fisheries” has been approved at a total central outlay of Rs. 3000 crore for implementation during a period of five years (2015-16 to 2019-20) with the following components:

1. National Fisheries Development Board and its activities: increasing fish production,
enhance its exports, apply modern tools and techniques, creation of employment etc.
2. Development of Inland Fisheries and Aqua Culture: Construction and renovation of ponds, establishing fish hatcheries, stocking of fingerlings, training and skill development etc.
3. Development of marine, infrastructure and post-harvest operations:
Motorization of traditional craft, promotion of mariculture in the form of sea cages, see weed cultivation, bi-valve cultivation and pearl culture, infrastructure like ice plants, cold storages development etc.
4. Institutional arrangements for this sector.
5. Strengthening of data base and Geographical Information System of the fisheries sector: assistance to state governments for collection and supply of fisheries data, development of GIS, mapping of water bodies etc.
6. Monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS) and other need based interventions:
(a) Biometric ID card to marine fishers
(b) registration of their vessels
(c) upgradation of the registration centres into Fisheries Monitoring Control and
Surveillance centres (FMCS)
7. National scheme of welfare of fishers: Housing for fishermen, basic amenities, group accident insurance for active fisherman, Grant in aid to the National Federation of Fishers Cooperative ltd (FISHCOPFED).

An Integrated National Fisheries Action Plan 2020 has been developed to achieve the concept of Blue Revolution.

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